2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale
2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale_top
2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale__right

This item shows wear including moderate wear to edges and cover and a small stain spot.
See more
Sold by Jenson Books Inc and fulfilled by Amazon.
[{"displayPrice":"$16.60","priceAmount":16.60,"currencySymbol":"$","integerValue":"16","decimalSeparator":".","fractionalValue":"60","symbolPosition":"left","hasSpace":false,"showFractionalPartIfEmpty":true,"offerListingId":"OuNpu3AiigZoNWXD5wLiHAJFkqCcaNlsVc9gD4nmPs%2FqF5zgpySrVYvHSm8QBc0Txivc0Izsr6%2Be2iUJGQqPXxVMUulK4MPFD8xN9HeBCFKOE1w9ROBN2H23ivJO5btmNe%2FFT1TbjCY%3D","locale":"en-US","buyingOptionType":"NEW"},{"displayPrice":"$9.98","priceAmount":9.98,"currencySymbol":"$","integerValue":"9","decimalSeparator":".","fractionalValue":"98","symbolPosition":"left","hasSpace":false,"showFractionalPartIfEmpty":true,"offerListingId":"wbiElSpwN4UPzf7M6uv1PBUlASSGwKTGnv5hsEHSP%2BO73dv7Yw7PPmMQh%2Fvs3l93DHPDUyqMiL2dBuH1RyxdwjXzvU9QJ79rA603SYfWzTECwPZDNa%2Fx1DVtbHIoJt9M0eYswhjhKGX8TluG9j9Nl%2Ff3%2BCI%2B9wNcjQxS7dWm89w6%2F5nD8Lu8Rd465%2BghMqEs","locale":"en-US","buyingOptionType":"USED"}]
$$16.60 () Includes selected options. Includes initial monthly payment and selected options. Details
Price
Subtotal
$$16.60
Subtotal
Initial payment breakdown
Shipping cost, delivery date, and order total (including tax) shown at checkout.
ADD TO LIST
Available at a lower price from other sellers that may not offer free Prime shipping.
SELL ON AMAZON
Share this product with friends
Text Message
WhatsApp
Copy
press and hold to copy
Email
Facebook
Twitter
Pinterest
Loading your book clubs
There was a problem loading your book clubs. Please try again.
Not in a club? Learn more
Join or create book clubs
Choose books together
Track your books
Bring your club to Amazon Book Clubs, start a new book club and invite your friends to join, or find a club that’s right for you for free. Explore Amazon Book Clubs
Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.
Full content visible, double tap to read brief content.
Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.
Full content visible, double tap to read brief content.

Frequently bought together

+
+
Choose items to buy together.
Buy all three: $42.11
$16.60
$9.69
$15.82
Total price:
To see our price, add these items to your cart.
Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.
Full content visible, double tap to read brief content.

Book details

Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.
Full content visible, double tap to read brief content.

Description

Product Description

From the Modern Library’s new set of beautifully repackaged hardcover classics by Robert K. Massie—also available are Nicholas and Alexandra and The Romanovs

Against the monumental canvas of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe and Russia unfolds the magnificent story of Peter the Great, crowned co-tsar at the age of ten. The acclaimed author of Catherine the Great, Robert K. Massie delves deep into the life of this captivating historical figure, chronicling the pivotal events that shaped a boy into a legend—including his “incognito” travels in Europe, his unquenchable curiosity about Western ways, his obsession with the sea and establishment of the stupendous Russian navy, his creation of an unbeatable army, his transformation of Russia, and his relationships with those he loved most: Catherine, the robust yet gentle peasant, his loving mistress, wife, and successor; and Menshikov, the charming, bold, unscrupulous prince who rose to wealth and power through Peter’s friendship. Impetuous and stubborn, generous and cruel, tender and unforgiving, a man of enormous energy and complexity, Peter the Great is brought fully to life.
 
The Modern Library of the World’s Best Books
 
Peter the Great
Winner of the Pulitzer Prize
 
“Enthralling . . . as fascinating as any novel and more so than most.”The New York Times Book Review
 
Nicholas and Alexandra
 
“A magnificent and intimate picture . . . Not only the main characters but a whole era become alive and comprehensible.”—Harper’s
 
The Romanovs
 
“Riveting . . . unfolds like a detective story.”—Los Angeles Times Book Review

Review

“Enthralling . . . as fascinating as any novel and more so than most.”— The New York Times Book Review

“Urgently readable . . . the work of a master of narrative history.”— Newsweek

“Written in a style that combines vigor, clarity, and sensitivity . . . should be the envy of historians and novelists alike.”— Chicago Sun-Times
 
“Fascinating . . . an absorbing book.”— The Plain Dealer
 
“Exceptional.”— The New Yorker

From the Inside Flap

"Enthralling . . . As fascinating as any novel and more so than most." The New York Times Book Review
The Pulitzer Prize-Winning Bestseller by the author of DREADNOUGHT.
Against the monumental canvas of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe and Russia unfolds the magnificent story of Peter the Great, one of the most extraordinary rulers in history. Impetuous and stubborn, generous and cruel, tender and unforgiving, a man of enormous energy and complexity, Peter the Great is brought fully to life in this exceptional biography.

From the Back Cover

"Enthralling . . . As fascinating as any novel and more so than most." The New York Times Book Review
The Pulitzer Prize-Winning Bestseller by the author of DREADNOUGHT.
Against the monumental canvas of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe and Russia unfolds the magnificent story of Peter the Great, one of the most extraordinary rulers in history. Impetuous and stubborn, generous and cruel, tender and unforgiving, a man of enormous energy and complexity, Peter the Great is brought fully to life in this exceptional biography.

About the Author

Robert K. Massie was born in Lexington, Kentucky, and studied American history at Yale and European history at Oxford, which he attended as a Rhodes Scholar. He was president of the Authors Guild from 1987 to 1991. His books include Nicholas and Alexandra, Peter the Great: His Life and World (for which he won a Pulitzer Prize for biography) , The Romanovs: The Final Chapter, Dreadnought: Britain, Germany, and the Coming of the Great War, Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea, and Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman.

Excerpt. © Reprinted by permission. All rights reserved.

1

Old Muscovy

Around Moscow, the country rolls gently up from the rivers winding in silvery loops across the pleasant landscape. Small lakes and patches of woods are sprinkled among the meadowlands. Here and there, a village appears, topped by the onion dome of its church. People are walking through the fields on dirt paths lined with weeds. Along the riverbanks, they are fishing, swimming and lying in the sun. It is a familiar Russian scene, rooted in centuries.

In the third quarter of the seventeenth century, the traveler coming from Western Europe passed through this countryside to arrive at a vantage point known as the Sparrow Hills. Looking down on Moscow from this high ridge, he saw at his feet “the most rich and beautiful city in the world.” Hundreds of golden domes topped by a forest of golden crosses rose above the treetops; if the traveler was present at a moment when the sun touched all this gold, the blaze of light forced his eyes to close. The white-­walled churches beneath these domes were scattered through a city as large as London. At the center, on a modest hill, stood the citadel of the Kremlin, the glory of Moscow, with its three magnificent cathedrals, its mighty bell tower, its gorgeous palaces, chapels and hundreds of houses. Enclosed by great white walls, it was a city in itself.

In summer, immersed in greenery, the city seemed like an enormous garden. Many of the larger mansions were surrounded by orchards and parks, while swaths of open space left as firebreaks burst out with grasses, bushes and trees. Overflowing its own walls, the city expanded into numerous flourishing suburbs, each with its own orchards, gardens and copses of trees. Beyond, in a wide circle around the city, the manors and estates of great nobles and the white walls and gilded cupolas of monasteries were scattered among meadows and tilled fields to stretch the landscape out to the horizon.

Entering Moscow through its walls of earth and brick, the traveler plunged immediately into the bustling life of a busy commercial city. The streets were crowded with jostling humanity. Tradespeople, artisans, idlers and ragged holy men walked beside laborers, peasants, black-­robed priests and soldiers in bright-­colored caftans and yellow boots. Carts and wagons struggled to make headway through this river of people, but the crowds parted for a fat-­bellied, bearded boyar, or nobleman, on horseback, his head covered with a fine fur cap and his girth with a rich fur-­lined coat of velvet or stiff brocade. At street corners, musicians, jugglers, acrobats and animal handlers with bears and dogs performed their tricks. Outside every church, beggars clustered and wailed for alms. In front of taverns, travelers were sometimes astonished to see naked men who had sold every stitch of clothing for a drink; on feast days, other men, naked and clothed alike, lay in rows in the mud, drunk.

The densest crowds gathered in the commercial districts centered on Red Square. The Red Square of the seventeenth century was very different from the silent, cobbled desert we know today beneath the fantastic, clustered steeples and cupolas of St. Basil’s Cathedral and the high Kremlin walls. Then it was a brawling, open-­air marketplace, with logs laid down to cover the mud, with lines of log houses and small chapels built against the Kremlin wall where Lenin’s tomb now stands, and with rows and rows of shops and stalls, some wood, some covered by tent-­like canvas, crammed into every corner of the vast arena. Three hundred years ago, Red Square teemed, swirled and reverberated with life. Merchants standing in front of stalls shouted to customers to step up and inspect their wares. They offered velvet and brocade, Persian and Armenian silk, bronze, brass and copper goods, iron wares, tooled leather, pottery, innumerable objects made of wood, and rows of melons, apples, pears, cherries, plums, carrots, cucumbers, onions, garlic and asparagus as thick as a thumb, laid out in trays and baskets. Peddlers and pushcart men forced their way through the crowds with a combination of threats and pleas. Vendors sold pirozhki (small meat pies) from trays suspended by cords from their shoulders. Tailors and street jewelers, oblivious to all around them, worked at their trades. Barbers clipped hair, which fell to the ground unswept, adding a new layer to a matted carpet decades in the forming. Flea markets offered old clothes, rags, used furniture and junk. Down the hill, nearer the Moscow River, animals were sold, and live fish from tanks. On the river­bank itself, near the new stone bridge, rows of women bent over the water washing clothes. One seventeenth-­century German traveler noted that some of the women selling goods in the square might also sell “another commodity.”

At noon, all activity came to a halt. The markets would close and the streets empty as people ate dinner, the largest meal of the day. Afterward, everyone napped and shopkeepers and vendors stretched out to sleep in front of their stalls.

With the coming of dusk, swallows began to soar over the Kremlin battlements and the city locked itself up for the night. Shops closed behind heavy shutters, watchmen looked down from the rooftops and bad-­tempered dogs paced at the end of long chains. Few honest citizens ventured into the dark streets, which became the habitat of thieves and armed beggars bent on extracting by force in the dark what they had failed to get by pleading during the daylight hours. “These villains,” wrote an Austrian visitor, “place themselves at the corners of streets and throw swinging cudgels at the heads of those that pass by, in which practice they are so expert that these mortal blows seldom miss.” Several murders a night were common in Moscow, and although the motive for these crimes was seldom more than simple theft, so vicious were the thieves that no one dared respond to cries for help. Often, terrorized citizens were afraid even to look out their own doors or windows to see what was happening. In the morning, the police routinely carried the bodies found lying in the streets to a central field where relatives could come to check for missing persons; eventually, all unidentified corpses were tumbled into a common grave.

Moscow in the 1670’s was a city of wood. The houses, mansions and hovels alike, were built of logs, but their unique architecture and the superb carved and painted decoration of their windows, porches and gables gave them a strange beauty unknown to the stolid masonry of European cities. Even the streets were made of wood. Lined with rough timbers and wooden planks, thick with dust in summer or sinking into the mud during spring thaws and September rains, the wood-­paved streets of Moscow attempted to provide footing for passage. Often, they failed. “The autumnal rains made the streets impassable for wagons and horses,” complained an Orthodox churchman visiting from the Holy Land. “We could not go out of the house to market, the mud and clay being deep enough to sink in overhead. The price of food rose very high, as none could be brought in from the country. All the people, and most of all ourselves, prayed to God that He would cause the earth to freeze.”

Not unnaturally in a city built of wood, fire was the scourge of Moscow. In winter when primitive stoves were blazing in every house, and in summer when the heat made wood tinder-­dry, a spark could create a holocaust. Caught by the wind, flames leaped from one roof to the next, reducing entire streets to ashes. In 1571, 1611, 1626 and 1671, great fires destroyed whole quarters of Moscow, leaving vast empty spaces in the middle of the city. These disasters were exceptional, but to Muscovites the sight of a burning house with firemen struggling to localize the fire by hastily tearing down other buildings in its path was a part of daily life.

As Moscow was built of logs, Muscovites always kept spares on hand for repairs or new construction. Logs by the thousand were piled up between houses or sometimes hidden behind them or surrounded by fences as protection from thieves. In one section, a large wood market kept thousands of prefabricated log houses of various sizes ready for sale; a buyer had only to specify the size and number of rooms desired. Almost overnight, the timbers, all clearly numbered and marked, would be carried to his site, assembled, the logs chinked with moss, a roof of thin planks laid on top and the new owner could move in. The largest logs, however, were saved and sold for a different purpose. Cut into six-­foot sections, hollowed out with an axe and covered with lids, they became the coffins in which Russians were buried.

Product information

Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.
Full content visible, double tap to read brief content.

Videos

Help others learn more about this product by uploading a video!
Upload video
Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.
Full content visible, double tap to read brief content.

Customers who bought this item also bought

Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.
Full content visible, double tap to read brief content.
Sponsored

Customer reviews

4.7 out of 54.7 out of 5
1,167 global ratings

Reviews with images

Top reviews from the United States

Laurie Kelley
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
One of My Favorite Books Ever: A Classic
Reviewed in the United States on September 16, 2016
I''ve read hundreds of books but this is on of my all-time favorites. Massie is a meticulous researcher and an excellent writer and storyteller. This book brings to life a fascinating man, and his incredible times, and how Peter brought Russia out of the dark ages with his... See more
I''ve read hundreds of books but this is on of my all-time favorites. Massie is a meticulous researcher and an excellent writer and storyteller. This book brings to life a fascinating man, and his incredible times, and how Peter brought Russia out of the dark ages with his vision, willpower, restless soul and ceaseless energy. The battle scenes are incredible: I read the Battle of Poltava like it was happening before me, like watching a football game with the best newscaster. A true page-turner. You will find yourself enveloped in military strategy of two great men (Charles XII of Sweden and Peter the Great) and their armies, how they thought, what moves they made, mistakes they committed, and the final outcome. Massie takes you from a bird''s eye view of a battle, right down to the most minute of details. I don''t know how he does it! This is my third time reading this book. The last time? 1987, when I was in labor with my firstborn. A long night, so I grabbed my favorite book. The author''s son has hemophilia (like Tsar Nicholas II''s did), and the next day, I gave birth to a son with hemophilia. When the doctor gave me the diagnosis, I looked at the book in awe. Perhaps this explains my personal love for this book. But it is a classic: so very well written, so perfectly researched, and so expertly told. Read it and you will time travel to the 18th century!
41 people found this helpful
Helpful
Report
Victor Vögel
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Captivating; Gold Standard of History Writing
Reviewed in the United States on July 18, 2017
"Peter the Great" is one of the best-written history books I''ve encountered, and it is the gold standard that I compare against other narrative histories. Despite the title, this is not a biography -- it is an incredible narrative history of the times of Peter the... See more
"Peter the Great" is one of the best-written history books I''ve encountered, and it is the gold standard that I compare against other narrative histories. Despite the title, this is not a biography -- it is an incredible narrative history of the times of Peter the Great. I found this to be not only an outstanding book about Russian history, but also an excellent book about Western history in the 17th and 18th centuries. The best chapters cover Peter''s grand tour through the Netherlands, Germany and England, and the book successfully brings to life the Europe of Peter''s time. I also learned a lot about the warfare and military strategy of the times. My one critique would be that the chapters on the war with Sweden could probably be a bit shorter; there''s more detail than most people need. Reading "Peter the Great" is better than reading historical fiction; the story is captivating and I really couldn''t put the book down.
17 people found this helpful
Helpful
Report
Kathryn Kiracofe
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Great story - Great Tsar - Great City
Reviewed in the United States on August 21, 2018
Amazing book! After spending several days in St. Petersburg, Russia last summer I was very interested in learning about the Russian Tsar responsible for its creation. Mr. Massie’s book on Peter The Great is a thorough biography that reads like a good novel. Mr Massie... See more
Amazing book! After spending several days in St. Petersburg, Russia last summer I was very interested in learning about the Russian Tsar responsible for its creation. Mr. Massie’s book on Peter The Great is a thorough biography that reads like a good novel. Mr Massie demonstrates the intricacies of the confluence of culture, identity, ideas and technologies of Western Europe, The Baltic Countries, Ottoman Empire and Russia during the time of Peter’s reign. St Petersburg feels like a Western European city in some regards - the canals, the palaces, the long boulevards and wide plazas. You realize this was by Peter’s design as he was very much taken by Western European architecture, fashion, technology and naval prowess. Peter could also be as brutish as many iron-fisted Tsars - demanding duty and subservience of all his subjects - including his own family. Peter was a high energy intellectual who surrounded himself with foreigners more often than the Russian aristocrats (boyars) of his time. His interest in ship building became his mark on Russian history. His ability to defeat the Swedish gave birth to the dazzling city on the Neva River.
8 people found this helpful
Helpful
Report
Cabin Dweller
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
The Indubitable Mr. Macabre
Reviewed in the United States on July 30, 2019
As told by the bottomless pit of worldliness, Robert Massie, the story of Peter the Great is not just epic but colossal. This book checks your sense of moral judgement at the door; none without a fully developed sense of context should read. Right and wrong and "western" or... See more
As told by the bottomless pit of worldliness, Robert Massie, the story of Peter the Great is not just epic but colossal. This book checks your sense of moral judgement at the door; none without a fully developed sense of context should read. Right and wrong and "western" or at the time Moslem etiquette has to be suspended as an act of historical curiosity.

King George I was not English. Peter''s second wife was Lithuanian. Pushkin has an African ancestor, one of the few if not the only African in the book. The German suburb in Moscow was comprised of various European residents, living well or at least better than the illiterate, drunk, abusive, lawless Russians. Among all, there is a staggering infant mortality rate and otherwise remarkably short lifespans. It was the suburb that drew Peter away from the Orthodox heritage: to boats and sailing, to the Embassy across Europe, to the shaving of beards and the shrinking of impractical - except in winter - clothing.

Owing perhaps to scarce records, or else just to a lull in domestic events, Charles XII of Sweden becomes the dominating figure in the middle of the book. Louis XIV was indulged as much as human spirit could tolerate, until the battles eventually turn to strange events with the Sultan in the Ottoman Empire, with Charles still angling for any revenge on his great foe while wearing his diplomatic welcome comically thin.

To no one''s surprise, this is an archive of torture, punishment, humiliation, and fear. Many times, and not just because the book is so long, many times per chapter in fact, the ax across the neck is an act of mercy. In their creativity, the Russians (with so many foreign lieutenants) anticipate the devious methods of Stalin and his purges, and Lenin and his Revolution. To no one''s surprise there is torture, just as there is the mobilization, march, and victorious debauchery, but these aspects of barbarism do become relentless as the pages turn.

This is a story without art. It traces one man''s desire for a people to create a history, when eventually it would develop a taste for any aesthetics.
6 people found this helpful
Helpful
Report
A. Watson
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
This is Why I Love to Read!
Reviewed in the United States on November 3, 2019
I am an ever-so-slow reader (a casualty, I was once told, of “progressive” reading circles in 1950’s Winnetka, IL, where we all read at the slowest kid’s pace). I am only 1/4 inch into this inches thick biography and I don’t want it to end. I’ve never read with such... See more
I am an ever-so-slow reader (a casualty, I was once told, of “progressive” reading circles in 1950’s Winnetka, IL, where we all read at the slowest kid’s pace). I am only 1/4 inch into this inches thick biography and I don’t want it to end. I’ve never read with such excitement. I’ve always cited Robert Caro’s LBJ books as my yardstick for excellence, but I suspect they may now be surpassed. Intimate detail, impressive research (!) and, oh, what lively writing! My one , not unimportant gripe, shared by others here, is that Maddie devotes too much ink to battle details! It lessened my interest considerably, causing me to skim in those chapters.
4 people found this helpful
Helpful
Report
Bibliophile
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
How Peter brought Russia into the modern world, by being among his people
Reviewed in the United States on May 9, 2021
OLD MUSCOVY Russians had the highest regard for their tsar. "Only God and the tsar know." Peter was born on May 30, 1682. He was named after the apostle. When he was 5 years old, he was taught the Bible. Forty years later, he could recite long passages of... See more
OLD MUSCOVY
Russians had the highest regard for their tsar. "Only God and the tsar know."

Peter was born on May 30, 1682. He was named after the apostle. When he was 5 years old, he was taught the Bible. Forty years later, he could recite long passages of Scripture by heart. He learned to sing the magnificent Russian choral litany. Peter often attended services in country churches, striding straight up to the choir and singing along in a loud voice.

CHAPTER 6 : WAR GAMES
Peter''s favorite game was war. At his father''s favorite hunting lodge, Peter ordered banners, uniforms and cannon so he and his friends could live in barracks, train like soldiers, use soldiers'' talk, and receive soldiers'' pay. From this collection of young noblemen and stable boys he eventually created the proud Proebrazhensky Regiment.

Peter believed in learning the business of soldiering from the bottom up. Rather than taking the rank of colonel, he was happy to enlist at the lowest grade, a drummer boy. He refused to accept senior rank unless it was earned.

Peter developed a love for sailing when he found an old boat and had the rotting timbers replaced. Today it is the most prized exhibit in the Navy Museum of the U.S.S.R. Along with his love for the sea, his other compulsion was learning from the West.

On January 27, 1689, Peter (16 1/2) married Eudoxia Lopukhina (20). At his age, Peter was too immature to appreciate marriage and often neglected his wife. He took a mistress of "little substance" for twelve years. She traded her beauty and easy-going laughter for gems, a country palace, and an estate.

THE JOLLY COMPANY
Peter was surrounded by a motley group of distinguished graybeards, youthful roisterers and foreign adventurers. They called themselves the Jolly Company. Their banquets began at noon and ended at dawn. They smoked, played bowls and ninepins, had archery matches, and shot at targets with muskets. They played music, danced, and watched fireworks. Mostly they drank and passed out. Drunkenness was almost universal in Russia and an essential feature of hospitality. Unless the guests were sent home dead drunk, the evening was considered a failure. Each person turned his cup upside down to prove it was empty. In time, drinking took its toll, as Peter was to die at the age of fifty-two.

The Jolly Company and their Drunken Synod masquerades were a form or relaxation for men who were not refined. They were men of action, engaged in building and governing a state. Their hands were stained with blood, mortar, and dust. They needed to relax and did so by drinking, laughing, shouting, dressing in costumes dancing, playing practical jokes, and making fun of one another.

CHAPTER 11: AZOV
Peter stood six feet seven inches. He was perpetually curious, perpetually restless, and perpetually in movement. He also suffered from unusual seizures that were most likely caused by a fever which almost killed him in 1693.

Russia was still at war with the Ottoman Empire. Every summer the horsemen of the Tatar Khan rode north to raid the Urkraine. In 1692, an army of 12,000 Tatar cavalry burned Neimerov to the ground and carried away 2,000 prisoners to be sold in the Ottoman slave marts. Peter mounted a plan to attack the Turkish forts at the mouths of the Dnieper and Don rivers. These forts blocked Russia''s access to the Black Sea.

Peter returned the following year to attack Azov. The Russian army built a vast earth platform to climb over the walls of the fort. It surrendered on July 28th. Azov was now Russian. All mosques were changed to Christian churches. For the first time in 30 years, the Russian army was victorious. After hearing the news, the Patriarch of Moscow burst into tears. He ordered the great bell rung and gave thanks to Almighty God. All talked with astonishment of the humility of Peter, who, after such a great victory, did not lift up his own heart, but ascribed all to the Creator of heaven and praised only his assistants.

Peter now began construction of a great warships and galleys. He sent young men to western Europe to learn seamanship, navigation, and shipbuilding.

CHAPTER 12: THE GREAT EMBASSY TO WESTERN EUROPE
For the first time ever a tsar traveled abroad when Peter and 250 of his ambassadors visited the capitals of Russia'' allies: Warsaw (Poland), Vienna (Austria), and Venice (Italy). He needed their help against the Ottoman Empire. Also included were Amsterdam and London, homes of the world''s two greatest naval powers. He wanted to meet the greatest shipbuilders in the world located in England, Holland, and Venice. France, friend of the Turks, he avoided (which meant he never King Louis XIV, the most influential man in Europe). Peter decided to travel incognito so he could avoid time-consuming formalities and ceremonies, and so he could come and go as he wished.

IN HOLLAND
Peter spent 4 months in Amsterdam learning shipbuilding. He worked in the shipyards of the East India Company because it was enclosed by walls and barred to the public. He built a frigate 100 feet long and named it "The Apostles Peter and Paul." Peter knew that the Russian people barely produced enough food to feed themselves. He observed the prosperity of the Dutch and attributed it to their vast merchant fleet, and to their religious toleration which increased their international trade.

THE PRINCE OF ORANGE
The Russians wanted to build 70 warships and over 100 galleys. However, the Dutch were not interested in becoming Russia''s ally against the Turks. Their sole focus was to defend themselves against the aggression of Louis XIV who had invaded Holland. He was stopped when 21-year-old William of Orange ordered the dikes to be breached to flood the land surrounding Amsterdam. Louis could advance no further and withdrew. William''s talent lay not in winning battles but in surviving defeat!

IN ENGLAND
In 1698, London was dirty from trash thrown into the streets and dangerous from rampant crime. But it also possessed grace and beauty. Christopher Wren, the great English architect, erected fifty-two new parish churches in London on sites wiped clean by the Great Fire of 1666. Their thin, glittering steeples gave London a breathtaking distinctive skyline, dominated by Wren''s masterpiece, the gigantic-domed St. Paul''s Cathedral. Life centered on intelligent conversations which took place in hundreds of coffee houses. Peter said that, "The English island is the best and most beautiful in the world." He visited Greenwich Naval Hospital. He saw the tombs of England''s monarchs inside Westminster Abbey. He toured the museum of medieval armor and the Royal Mint inside the Tower of London. He was impressed with how the Mint milled the edges of their coins to prevent the constant degrading of coinage by people snipping little bits of silver off the edges.

CHAPTER 17: LEOPOLD AND AUGUSTUS
Vienna believed it was their holy mission to defend Christianity against the advance of the Ottoman Empire whom they had repelled in 1683. King Leopold''s historians traced his genealogy back to the Old Testament Noah. Leopold preferred the quiet study of theology and genealogy over politics and military campaigns. He believed his throne had been given to him by God, and if He was satisfied with them, He would make them prosper.

Augustus, King of Poland, proposed to Peter an alliance to later go to war against Sweden, who blocked Polish and Russian access to the Baltic Sea.

Peter''s eighteen-month journey outside Russia helped him understand that the roots of Western technological advancement had been the freeing of men''s minds, especially through the Renaissance and the Reformation.

CHAPTER 18: "THESE THINGS ARE IN YOUR WAY"
On September 5, 1698, the day after returning to Moscow, Peter took a long, sharp barber razor and shaved off the beards of his closest associates. Most Orthodox Russians viewed their beards as an ornament given by God, worn by the prophets, the apostles and by Jesus Himself. But Peter regarded beards as unnecessary, uncivilized and ridiculous.

Peter also insisted they change from traditional Russian clothing: an embroidered shirt, wide breeches tucked into floppy boots brilliantly colored in red or green with turned-up toes and gold trim, then a caftan reaching to the ground. Peter believed this outfit to be impractical. The bulky robes got in the way whether working at a shipyard, sailing, or marching. Peter abandoned the long robed for shorter Hungarian and German-style caftans.

Another change occurred in Peter''s marriage. He wanted to be free from his "uninteresting and possessive wife." He had Eudoria forcibly removed to a monastery to become a nun.

Peter also changed the Russian calendar to align with the Western Julian calendar. Since the earliest times, Russia had calculated the year not from the birth of Christ but from the moment when they believed the world had been created. Peter had returned from the West not in 1698 but in 7206. The Russian New Year began on September 1st from their belief that the world was created in autumn when grain and fruit were ready for harvesting.

In order to promote trade, Peter had new coins minted. The existing kopeks were small oval bits of silver that people would slice up to make change. New stamped paper would now be used for all formal Russian government business.

Peter created the Order of St. Andrew, an exclusive order of Russian knighthood, named after the patron saint of Russia. They wore a broad light-blue ribbon diagonally across their chests with the cross of St. Andrew in black on white enamel.

CHAPTER 20: AMONG FRIENDS
The truncating of beards and sleeves, the changes in the calendar and the money, the incarceration of the Ttasritsa, the mockery of church rituals, the shipbuilding at Voronezh -- all were part of a single purpose: to move Russia away from the old and toward a more modern, Western way of life.

PETER''S MOODS
Peter''s moods were strange and unpredictable, given to violent swings between elation and sudden anger. One minute he was jovial, happy to be in the company of his friends, yet a few minutes later he could sink into deep, irritable gloom or explode with sudden rage.

CRIME IN MOSCOW
Robbers operated every where in packs. Usually at night but sometimes in broad daylight, they mugged and frequently murdered their victims. A foreign sea captain dining with his wife at the house of a boyar was invited to go out for a night sleigh ride across the snow. When he and his host returned, they found that his wife''s head had been cut off, and there were no clues as to the identity of the assassin. When robbers were caught, they were sent to the rack and the gallows. But disobedience was so deeply ingrained that deterrence was ineffective.

There were hordes of beggars who pursued citizens from the moment they left their homes. Peter used his own money to build a hospital attached to every church to provide for the poor. This soon cleared the streets of these poor vagrants, many of who chose to work than to be locked up in the stark hospitals.

CHAPTER 21: VORONEZH AND THE SOUTHERN FLEET
On May 7, 1699, the Russian fleet was ready to go to war with Turkey over access to the Black Sea. But in the Treaty of Constantinople of 1700, Peter negotiated a 30-year truce with the Turks. Russia would keep Azov, while Russian forts on the lower Dnieper were to be destroyed and the land returned to Turkey. The Turks promised to assist Orthodox Christians access to Jerusalem. Thus, the Russian fleet never went to war.

CHAPTER 22: MISTRESS OF THE NORTH
Sweden occupied the coastal lands of Karelia and Ingria that belonged to Russia. Peter allied with Denmark and Poland to go to war with Sweden. Peter mustered and trained an entire army in several months.

CHAPTER 24: CHARLES XII
The king of Sweden was 10 years younger than Peter. As a boy and young man, Charles spent an hour every morning discussing the chapters of the Bible one by one with a bishop. By the age of 17, he vowed to his grandmother that he would never drink alcohol again. This occurred in 1699 when during a great drinking bout a captive bear was forced to drink so much Spanish wine that he lumbered to a window, lurched out into the courtyard below and was killed by the fall. Charles was deeply ashamed at what he had done and, with only two exceptions when he was wounded and extremely thirsty, he never touched another drop of strong liquor. At a young age he became a fierce and unrelenting warrior. He only fought one enemy at a time so he could concentrate all his forces. His allies against Russia were England and Holland.

CHAPTER 25: NARVA
Peter determined that the key to regaining the coastal lands was taking the city of Narva. It was situated on a bend of the River Narova so that three sides were surrounded by water. The Russians constructed siege works four miles long, nine feet high, with a trench six-feet-deep in front. Charles landed 150 miles away. Against his advisers and deplorable conditions, he marched 10,537 men toward Narva. The roads were mired by autumn rains and the men marched and slept in thick, syrupy mud. There was no fodder for the horses and no food as the Russians had burned all the farmhouses along the way. A steady cold November rain drenched the men. At night the rain turned to snow flurries and the ground began to freeze. King Charles slept with his men under the open sky, receiving the snow and rain in his face.

Peter used the same strategy the Duke of Marlborough would use ten years later. He first encircled the town with his army, and then fortified the outer rim of the camp to hold off rescuing armies. But the Russian line was too long, and what turned out to be the night before the battle, Peter left for Novgorod to speed up reinforcements and to confer with his Polish ally, King Augustus. None of the Russians expected the exhausted Swedish army to attack. That is exactly what they did. They had no food to sustain themselves in a long siege, and retreat was not an option. They attacked near the center of the Russian line. A blizzard blew up right behind the Swedes, clouding the vision of the Russians who aimed their shots too high. The Swedes threw themselves into the ditch and over the wall, in fierce hand-to-hand combat. Then they divided their forces, one going north and the other south. The Russians fought stubbornly, then panicked and retreated into the river, where many men were lost. So many men and horses crowded onto the single bridge that it collapsed.

The Swedes had 31 officers and 646 men killed, with 1,205 wounded. Eight thousand Russians had been either killed or wounded.

CHAPTER 26: "WE MUST NOT LOSE OUR HEADS"
When confronted with disaster, Peter did not despair. Failure only spurned him forward. Slowly, a new army was forged. Peter bought around 40,000 modern flintlock rifles from England with ring bayonets. One-fourth of all church bells were melted down and recast as cannon. Peter built swarms of small naval craft, propelled by oar and a single sail, to harass Swedish ships on the lakes and rivers. by 1704 they drove the Swedish navy out of Russia. At Dorpat, the Russians threw a boom across the mouth of the river and placed artillery on shore. When thirteen Swedish ships came down the river, the current carried them helplessly against the boom, where the Russian artillery blew them to pieces.

The new army''s first battle was at the powerful island fortress of Noteborg in the fall of 1702. Surrounded with no hope of a relieving army, the fort surrendered after ten days of bombardment. On May 12, 1703, Peter captured the Swedish town of Nyenskans. He now occupied the length of the Neva River and regained access to the Baltic Sea. The Province of Ingria was restored to Russia.

It was Peter''s dream to build a city on the sea, a port from which Russian ships and Russian commerce would sail out into the world''s oceans. And this he did. The Swedes returned again and again but were beaten off. Through the centuries, none of the conquerors who subsequently entered Russia with great armies -- Charles XII, Napoleon, Hitler -- was able to capture Peter''s Baltic port, St. Petersburg, although the Nazi armies besieged the city for 900 days in World War II. From the day that Peter the Great first set foot on the mouth of the Neva River, the land and the city that arose there have always remained Russian.

CHAPTER 27: THE FOUNDING OF ST. PETERSBURG
Built in May 1703, Peter lived in a simple log cabin while the city of his patron saint was being built. It was 55 feet long and 20 feet wide and had three rooms: a bedroom, a dining room, and a study. It had no stoves or chimneys, as Peter only stayed there during the summer. It still stands today as the oldest building in St. Petersburg.

Peter''s wanted his city to be a fortress guarding Russian access to the Baltic Sea, a better port for commercial vessels than colder Archangel in the Arctic Sea, a port for the Russian navy, and a place where Russians would want to live. He hired the Italian architect, Domenico Trezzini, who built brick and stone buildings in the Dutch, Protestant, northern-baroque style. In 1713, he began construction of the baroque Peter and Paul Cathedral which still stands today, with its Germanic golden spire soaring 400 feet into the air.

The land was not ideal. It was a marsh. Thousands of carpenters, stonecutters, masons, and unskilled peasants had to drive piles into the marches, hew and haul timbers, drag the stones, clear the forests, level the hills, lay out the streets, build docks and wharves, erect the fortress, houses and shipyard, and dig the canals. Stones had to be imported. Every Russian vessel coming into port was required to bring a quota of stones or be denied entry. Working conditions were frightful. Workers lived on damp ground in rough, crowded, filthy huts. Scurvy, dysentery, and malaria were everywhere. An estimated 30,000 workers died.

People initially hated living there. The surrounding region of water, swamp, and forests did not produce enough crops. Food had to be imported. Built at sea level, the city flooded whenever the Neva River rose more than a few feet. The water reached 21 inches high in Peter''s cabin. He minimized it by saying that "the waters did not remain long, less than three hours." The people sat on their roofs and in trees until the water receded. There were also many fires. Since stone was scarce, homes were initially built of wood. Peter organized a system of constant surveillance. At night, watchmen sat in church towers. At the first sign of fire, they rang a bell. Drummers woke up and beat their drums. The streets filled with men, hatchets in hand, running to the fire. They received an extra monthly allowance for doing so. Peter himself ran with them. A foreigner said, "It is a common thing to see the Tsar among the workmen with a hatchet in hand, climbing to the top of the houses that are all in flames, with such danger to himself that the spectators tremble at the sight of it."

In time, St. Petersburg became a dazzling city. Majestic palaces and public buildings of yellow, light blue, pale green and red lined the three-mile granite quay along the Neva. One-hundred-and-fifty arching bridges linked nineteen islands. Everywhere there were golden spires and domes, granite columns and marble obelisks. It became a fountainhead of Russian literature, music and art, the home of Pushkin, Gogol and Dostoevsky, of Borodin, Mussorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov, of Pepita, Diaghilev, Pavlova and Nijinsky. For two centuries, Russian sovereigns ruled there. Even after its name was changed to Leningrad, many of its citizens affectionately simply refer to it as "Peter."

(There are 36 more chapters!)
Helpful
Report
glauver
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Long, But Worth The effort
Reviewed in the United States on June 9, 2021
During his long career historian Robert K Massie wrote several biographies about the Romanov rulers of Russia. The first in the series was his 1980 book about Peter the Great, later the basis for a 1986 NBC miniseries. However, Massie was writing serious history, not the... See more
During his long career historian Robert K Massie wrote several biographies about the Romanov rulers of Russia. The first in the series was his 1980 book about Peter the Great, later the basis for a 1986 NBC miniseries. However, Massie was writing serious history, not the Hollywood version. He opened the book with a description of the world Peter was born into and the political and religious realities that made Russia a minor player in seventeenth century Europe. I was surprised to learn that at that time in history France was more populous than Russia. Most of the book is a chronological survey of Peter''s reign, his struggles to wrest control from the old order, and his fight to bring Russia out of the Dark Ages. His wars are also detailed, especially his epic struggle with Charles XII of Sweden, a remarkable figure in his own right. The tragic climax of the story is in the chapters in which Peter sacrifices his son and heir rather than allow him to thwart Peter''s vision for Russia. Massie''s massive 850 page epic painted a portrait of a man and a time that seems far in the past to us, but surely Vladimir Putin draws inspiration from Peter. You may find places where the book seems to drag, but persevere; I think you will find it worth the effort. Four and a half stars.
Helpful
Report
John Conforti
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
THE MAN WHO MADE MODERN RUSSIA
Reviewed in the United States on January 17, 2021
Before Peter, Russia was a primitive, mystical, xenophobic society. The sheer force of one man’s will brought Russia, kicking and screaming, into the modern world. How he did it, is the major theme of this book. Another, and allied the first, is The Great Northern... See more
Before Peter, Russia was a primitive, mystical, xenophobic society. The sheer force of one man’s will brought Russia, kicking and screaming, into the modern world. How he did it, is the major theme of this book.
Another, and allied the first, is The Great Northern War. Sweden controlled the shores of the Baltic. When fifteen-year-old Charles XII inherited the throne, Peter and his allies pounced. They had a tiger by the tale. The author falters here. The reader is made to slog through twenty years of war, it seems, one day at a time. Maps on Kindle are useless. They only add to the reader’s frustration. In the end, Peter got his Baltic port and proceeded to build his new capital, St. Petersburg- his window on the West.
This biography is well worth your time. Peter’s magnificent persona dominates every page as it has left its imprint on Russia to this very day.
Helpful
Report

Top reviews from other countries

Tony
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
A life which reads like a novel
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on November 1, 2019
Robert Massie writes impeccably. This biography is as wide, sweeping and impressive as Peter The Great himself. While crammed with facts and detail, the book never becomes slow or onerous. It has pace, excitement and fascinating insights which, despite it being a weighty...See more
Robert Massie writes impeccably. This biography is as wide, sweeping and impressive as Peter The Great himself. While crammed with facts and detail, the book never becomes slow or onerous. It has pace, excitement and fascinating insights which, despite it being a weighty tome, ensures it reads as much like a novel as a magnificent history of the man and the period. I''ve read it several times and bought copies for friends. Cannot recommend this one too highly.
2 people found this helpful
Report
T SHARP
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
... book I feel as if I''ve known Peter the Great all my life
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on October 12, 2017
Having read this book I feel as if I''ve known Peter the Great all my life. Every aspect of his life is covered. The genius of Massie is the way he makes it totally come to life. Peter was a huge larger than life character and I kept on asking myself what it would have been...See more
Having read this book I feel as if I''ve known Peter the Great all my life. Every aspect of his life is covered. The genius of Massie is the way he makes it totally come to life. Peter was a huge larger than life character and I kept on asking myself what it would have been like to have lived or worked with him. I suspect in my case that, if I''d shaved my beard off, it would have been an exciting roller coaster experience. The point is that the book is so well written that you feel as if you are there. It''s a long book, we''ll over 24 hours of reading time. The book was written in 1980 so there are a few references to The Soviet Union but in no way is the book dated. Massie goes into some detail on other contemporary sovereigns (particularly Charles XII of Sweden) as it''s important to understand the major players that Peter had to interact with. A man who changed Russia more than anyone else. Well worth reading.
4 people found this helpful
Report
Alice Ross
5.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Massie is great. The presentation is poor.
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on September 19, 2017
I have only read up to the year 1699 and Massie has done an excellent review of the context surrounding Peter at every step of his progress in history. It has been meticulously researched; however, unfortunately, the Kindle Edition with the clumsy centering of text,...See more
I have only read up to the year 1699 and Massie has done an excellent review of the context surrounding Peter at every step of his progress in history. It has been meticulously researched; however, unfortunately, the Kindle Edition with the clumsy centering of text, footnotes and notes prevents one from using the reference notes (they are only indicated as references to parts 1,2,3,4,5,6 of the volume) that have no page locus. But again, Massie whom I met when he was working on this volume, has well spent (I believe) seven years to research the book thoroughly. It provides a well-grounded vademecum on the Europe at the turn of the 17th century.
2 people found this helpful
Report
Livvy M
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
Superb!
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on March 11, 2013
This is a superb book. The only reason I have given it four rather than five stars is that the illustrations are difficult to make out on the Kindle, and I suspect that the paper edition would have had pictures of the major characters which are not on the e-reader. If it...See more
This is a superb book. The only reason I have given it four rather than five stars is that the illustrations are difficult to make out on the Kindle, and I suspect that the paper edition would have had pictures of the major characters which are not on the e-reader. If it doesn''t, this would confirm a four star rating for the work as a whole. Mr Massie paints a balanced picture of Peter, warts and all. We see the autocratic ruler, the reformer determined to drag his country into the modern world, the jovial seaman unwilling to stand on ceremony and the paranoid character who sees plots to depose him everywhere. Perhaps the most poignant event is the death of the Tsarevitch Alexis from torture ordered by his father. That Peter emerges from this event without appearing a monster is a tribute to the author''s skill. We also have fascinating impressions of Peter''s major contemporaries, especially Charles Xll of Sweden who emerges as a major protagonist in the book. This is a major work conveying not just the details of Peter''s life, but a sweeping observation of all aspects of Russian life. The style is eminently readable. I never thought I would find detailed analysis of an 18th century battle interesting, but in the skilled hands of Robert Massie, the description of Poltava is a real page-turner. Highly recommended!
2 people found this helpful
Report
Rob C
4.0 out of 5 starsVerified Purchase
An accessible, yet detailed review of one of the great men of europe
Reviewed in the United Kingdom on February 13, 2014
Robert K Massie has written not just one of the best biographies of Peter the Great, Tsar of all the Russias, but one of the best biographies out there. Written in a flowing, easy to read style, the work describes the life and times that Peter lived through, allowing us,...See more
Robert K Massie has written not just one of the best biographies of Peter the Great, Tsar of all the Russias, but one of the best biographies out there. Written in a flowing, easy to read style, the work describes the life and times that Peter lived through, allowing us, the reader to picture the scenes that Peter is moving through. And the times that Peter moved through were momentous as Peter attempts to modernise the Muscovy/Russian state, from the troubles with the revolt of the Streltsy at the very startt of his reign (orchstrated by Peter''s half sister, Sophia), to the wars with Sweden and Poland. With plenty of maps and illustrations for us to look at (sometimes a weakness of other biographies of historical figures, we actually can see the geo-political factors that have an impact) this is truly a great book to read
One person found this helpful
Report
See all reviews
Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.
Full content visible, double tap to read brief content.

Customers who viewed this item also viewed

Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.
Full content visible, double tap to read brief content.

Explore similar books

Tags that will help you discover similar books. 16 tags
Results for: 
Where do clickable book tags come from?
Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.
Full content visible, double tap to read brief content.

Pages with related products.

  • highland games
  • navy history
  • russian literature
  • seventeenth century russia
Brief content visible, double tap to read full content.
Full content visible, double tap to read brief content.

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale

2021 new arrival Peter high quality the Great: His Life discount and World outlet online sale